Diploma Mills: How For-Profit Colleges Stiffed Students, Taxpayers, and the American Dream

By A. J. Angulo

The most vital shift in better schooling over the last 20 years has been the emergence of for-profit schools and universities. those on-line and storefront associations trap scholars with provides of quick levels and "guaranteed" activity placement, yet what they carry is usually anything fairly assorted. during this provocative historical past of for-profit greater schooling, historian and academic researcher A. J. Angulo tells the extraordinary and sometimes sordid tale of those "diploma mills," which goal low-income and nontraditional scholars whereas scooping up a disproportionate quantity of federal scholar aid.

Tapping right into a little-known heritage with massive implications, Angulo takes readers on a full of life trip that starts with the apprenticeship approach of colonial the US and ends with today’s politically savvy $35 billion multinational for-profit undefined. He strains the transformation of nineteenth-century analyzing and writing faculties into "commercial" and "business" faculties, explores the early 20th century’s stream towards professionalization and progressivism, and explains why the GI invoice caused a surge of recent for-profit associations. He additionally exhibits how well-founded matters approximately profit-seeking in greater schooling have advanced over the centuries and argues that monetary gaming and maneuvering via those associations threatens to destabilize the whole federal pupil reduction program.

This is the 1st sweeping narrative historical past to give an explanation for why for-profits have mattered to scholars, taxpayers, lawmakers, and the various others who've seen greater schooling as a part of the yankee dream. Diploma Mills speaks to today’s issues by way of laying off mild on unmistakable conflicts of curiosity lengthy linked to this scandal-plagued type of faculties and universities.

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24. 31. Ibid. , sixteen, 14; VA50, one hundred sixty. 32. HSC51, 15, 27. 33. Ibid. , 28. 34. normal Accounting place of work, document of Survey—Veterans’ schooling and coaching application (Washington, DC: GPO, 1951; hereafter, GAO51). 35. Ibid. , 7–9. 36. Ibid. , 10, 87–88. 37. Ibid. , 10–11, 92–93. 38. Ibid. , 10–12. US Bureau of work data, CPI Inflation Calculator, www. bls. gov/data/inflation_calculator. htm. 39. HSC52. forty. Ibid. , 1–4. “The university program,” concerning the nonprofit quarter, in the meantime, “has been winning” (9). forty-one. Ibid. , 14–16. forty two. Ibid. , 29, 32–38. forty three. Ibid. , forty-one, 167–169. forty four. Ibid. , sixty six, eighty. forty five. James B. Edmonson (1882–1954) graduated with a PhD in schooling and historical past from the collage of Chicago in 1925. His parts of workmanship integrated secondary and postsecondary management, regulations, and curricula. forty six. For extra on Edmonson’s profession, see the James B. Edmonson Papers, Bentley historic Library, collage of Michigan (hereafter, JBEP). forty seven. James B. Edmonson, “ ‘Gypped! ’: G. I. Joe has to be protected from Low-Grade Colleges,” The Nation’s colleges 35 (February 1945): 25. forty eight. James B. Edmonson, “Fraudulent faculties and Colleges,” institution and Society seventy two (July 15, 1950): 33–35. forty nine. James B. Edmonson, “Some rules of States Governing the Granting of school Charters and similar Problems,” organization of upper schooling, nationwide schooling organization, 1953, field 1, folder “Fraudulent Schools,” JBEP. 50. “Preliminary Draft of a invoice to supply for Regulatory Licensure of faculties carried out for revenue within the nation of _____ (Purpose: To put off Fraudulent Institutions),” organization of upper schooling, nationwide schooling organization, 1953, field 1, folder “Fraudulent Schools,” JBEP. fifty one. M. A. Nash to James B. Edmonson, February 21, 1953, field 1, folder “Fraudulent Schools,” JBEP; James B. Edmonson to M. A. Nash, February 27, 1953, ibid. ; Arthur S. Adams to James B. Edmonson, July 27, 1953, ibid. ; H. D. Hopkins to James B. Edmonson, February 19, 1954, ibid. fifty two. Homer Kempfer to James B. Edmonson, may well 14, 1953, field 1, folder “Fraudulent Schools,” JBEP; Charles L. Platt to James B. Edmonson, may well four, 1953, ibid. ; Charles L. Platt to Duke McColl and Earl Cranston, April three, 1953, ibid. fifty three. S. A. Witmer to James B. Edmonson, may perhaps 6, 1953, field 1, folder “Fraudulent Schools,” JBEP; James B. Edmonson to S. A. Witmer, may possibly 12, 1953, ibid. ; S. A. Witmer to James B. Edmonson, may possibly 26, 1953, ibid. ; S. A. Witmer to James B. Edmonson, November three, 1953, ibid. ; Edmonson, “Some rules of States Governing the Granting of school Charters and comparable Problems,” ibid. fifty four. Correspondence incorporated communications from officers of the next businesses: the Ford beginning, Western collage organization, nationwide Catholic academic organization, nationwide organization of faculty Deans and Registrars, nationwide domestic research Council, nationwide organization and Council of commercial faculties, US Air strength, US Veterans’ Affairs, mental company, and California division of schooling, in addition to from dozens of different members and associations. See letters in field 1, folder “Fraudulent Schools,” JBEP.

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